1 Gagis

Smart City Bhubaneswar Essay Writing

In the city of slow-hipped women gracing 3,000-year-old temple pillars that was the last thing I expected to read — ‘Bowel eggs’ advertised for sale at a stall on the way to a temple. But what has age to do with anything, eggs are a handy snack if you want something substantial in between the bunches of bananas and the fruit that throng the bazaars around the temples. Of Bhubaneswar they say that 1,000 temples were once squeezed into three square kilometres though not everyone in Bhubaneswar is aware of that fact. Ask to see temples and you will be directed to the newish Ram Mandir with its painted pillars that is always thronged with worshippers. Qualify that by saying old temple and the venerable Lingaraj inevitably comes up.

The Lingaraj temple is older than time and hemmed in by a police chowki and the bustle of a bazaar selling fruit and flowers. Slippers and mobiles have to be discarded at cubicles in the wall along with cameras and other material possessions, which is bad news for the holy selfie takers. Lines shuffle slowly up uneven steps onto stones hot enough to fry feet on in summers. To get to Shiva one has to first salute Ganesh and then Shani Dev. Then take the plunge down stairs slippery with squished flowers into the cavern of power. There jostled by faith and elbows you may be lucky enough to catch a glimpse of the dark stone in that narrow shadowy space.

Behind the temple is Bindu Sagar, a tank now paved with the shiny green leaves of water hyacinths, that once provided water and baths for the devoted. A deserted temple in the middle of the tank is opened once or twice a year — for the most part the saffron- and primrose-robed priests perform quick services by the roadside.

Temples not in use make for better visiting for the architecturally inclined. The Rajarani temple for example, set at the end of a secluded park with flowering camellias. My driver was tempted to follow me inside having never had the inclination to see one of the disused temples before. The Rajarani has an entry fee which restricts local children but keeps the temple pillars intact — moving my driver into an awed commentary at the skill of those long-forgotten artisans who worked only with their hands. Pictures of the pillars are very often mistaken for Konarak pillars by those who look at the apsaras and nothing beyond.

Kedar Gauri with its tank and surrounding little box shrines has a Romeo and Juliet story behind it and is also ruled over by Shiva in his Kedareswar avatar. A priest there encourages visitors while children play hide-and-seek in the shrines. Every year Lord Shiva is carried down from Lingaraj to Kedar Gauri and ceremonially married to Parvati, making the temple popular among newly-weds.

A heritage walk has been devised to take people through the alleyways and byways of Bhubaneswar on foot every Sunday, including temple kitchens and bazaars. The Ekamra Walk is still not as well-known as it deserves to be and covers only the more accessible temples.

As the cliché goes, Bhubaneswar is a mix of the old and new — at one end are the billboards near the airport proclaiming the smart city; at the other, the ancient city of a thousand mantras. In the relatively old neighbourhood of Jhorpada that falls between the two stools, there are kitschy fountains occupying traffic roundels, figures balancing urns or children in brightly-coloured garments with no evocation of the temple belles. Jhorpada does not regard itself as ‘old city’ though with wider roads lined with all kinds of stall, one of them boldly advertising the ‘bowel eggs’ along with the ubiquitous omalatt, which does nothing to lessen the stall’s popularity. There is also a Kolkata Ganguram’s selling Bengali sweets. All exotic as far as Bhubaneswar is concerned — dalma (lentils with vegetables) is the State dish and there is a chain of restaurants with that name but you won’t find dalma stalls on the streets.

Lose yourself in the by-lanes and channels and you could be anywhere in Asia, with bulls claiming right of way beside a blank wall or a woman in red fluttering by. Autumn fills the waterbodies with feathery white fronds. On a highway at night you will pass workers on a rooftop mending or rebuilding. Bhubaneswar has always been work in process, whether as part of the Kalinga dynasty or now en route to becoming a smart city of the future, shifting old stones to new buildings or, in some cases, new stones in the place of old ones worn down by time.

Anjana Basu is a Kolkata-based writer

Published on

Nickname(s): Temple City of India


Bhubaneswar, Odisha

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Bhubaneswar (Odisha)

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Coordinates: 20°16′N85°50′E / 20.27°N 85.84°E / 20.27; 85.84Coordinates: 20°16′N85°50′E / 20.27°N 85.84°E / 20.27; 85.84
Named forLord Shiva's name: Bhubaneswar
 • TypeMunicipal Corporation
 • BodyBhubaneswar Municipal Corporation (BMC)
 • MayorAnant Narayan Jena (BJD)
 • Municipal CommissionerDr. Krishan Kumar, IAS
 • Metropolis422 km2 (163 sq mi)
Elevation45 m (148 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Metropolis837,456
 • Rank60
 • Density2,131.37/km2 (5,520.2/sq mi)
 • Metro881,988
Demonym(s)Bhubaneswariya [2]
 • OfficialOdia
Time zoneIST (UTC+5:30)
Telephone code0674
Vehicle registrationOD-02 & OD-33 (OR-02 before 2013)

Bhubaneswar, also spelt as Bhubaneshwar or (Bhuvanēśvar)  ( listen), is the capital of the Indian state of Odisha. It is the largest city in Odisha and is a centre of economic and religious importance in Eastern India.

Along with the old town, the region, historically was often depicted as Ekamra Kshetra (Temple City). With the diverse ranges of heritage resources, it showcases significant sacred cultural landscape components which have evolved with the support of available natural resource base and cultural trigger.[3]

Although the modern city of Bhubaneswar was formally established only in 1948, the history of the areas in and around the present-day city can be traced to 3rd century BCE and earlier. It is a confluence of Hindu, Buddhist and Jain heritage boasting of some of the finest Kalingan temples. With many 6th-13th century CE Hindu temples, which span the entire spectrum of Kalinga architecture, Bhubaneswar is often referred to as a "Temple City of India". With Puri and Konark it forms the Swarna Tribhuja ("Golden Triangle"), one of eastern India's most visited destinations.[4]

Bhubaneswar replaced Cuttack as the capital on 19 August 1949, 2 years after India gained its independence from Britain. The modern city was designed by the German architect Otto Königsberger in 1946. Along with Jamshedpur and Chandigarh, it was one of modern India's first planned cities. Bhubaneswar and Cuttack are often referred to as the 'twin cities of Odisha'. The metropolitan area formed by the two cities had a population of 1.7 million in 2011.[5] Bhubaneswar is categorised as a Tier-2 city. An emerging information technology (IT) and education hub, Bhubaneswar is one of the country's fastest-developing cities.


From Odia ଭୁବନେଶ୍ୱର (bhubaneswara), a compound of ଭୁବନ (bhubana, “earth”) and ଈଶ୍ବର (iswara, “the almighty”).[6]

Bhubaneswar, derived its name from Tribhubaneswar, which literally means the Lord (Eeswar) of the Three World (Tribhuban), which refers to Lord Shiva. [7]


The foundation of the modern Bhubaneswar city was laid in 1948, although the areas in and around the city have a history going back to 1st century BCE or earlier.[8]

Dhauli, near Bhubaneswar was the site of the Kalinga War (c. 262-261 BCE), in which the Mauryan emperor Ashoka invaded and annexed Kalinga.[8] One of the most complete edicts of the Mauryan Emperor, Ashoka, dating from between 272–236 BCE, remains carved in rock 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) to the southwest of the modern city.[9] After the decline of the Mauryan empire, the area came under the rule of Mahameghavahana dynasty, whose most well-known rule is Kharavela. His Hathigumpha inscription is located at the Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves near Bhubaneswar. The area was subsequently ruled by several dynasties, including Satavahanas, Guptas, Matharas, and Shailodbhavas.[8]

In 7th century, Somavamshi or Keshari dynasty established their kingdom in the area, and constructed a number of temples. After the Kesharis, the Eastern Gangas ruled Kalinga area until 14th century CE. Their capital Kalinganagar was located in present-day Bhubaneswar district. After them, Mukunda Deva of the Bhoi dynasty – the last Hindu ruler of the area until the Marathas – developed several religious buildings in the area.[8] Most of the older temples in Bhubaneswar were built between 8th and 12th centuries, under Shaiva influence. The Ananta Vasudeva Temple is the only old temple of Vishnu in the city.[10] In 1568, the Karrani dynasty of Afghan origin gained control of the area. During their reign, most of the temples and other structures were destroyed or disfigured.[8]

In the 16th century, the area came under pachamani Mughal control. The Marathas, who succeeded the Mughals in mid-18th century, encouraged pilgrimage in the region. In 1803, the area came under British colonial rule, and was part of the Bengal Presidency (until 1912), Bihar and Orissa Province (1912-1936) and Orissa Province (1936-1947).[8] The capital of the British-ruled Orissa Province was Cuttack, which was vulnerabile to floods and suffered from space constraints. Because of this, on 30 September 1946, a proposal to move the capital to a new capital was introduced in the Legislative Assembly of the Orissa Province. After independence of India, the foundation of the new capital was laid by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru on 13 April 1948.[8]

The name of the new capital came from "Tribhubaneswar" or "Bhubaneswar" (literally "Lord of the Earth"), a name of Shiva, the deity of the Lingaraja temple.[7] The Legislative Assembly of Orissa was shifted from Cuttack to Bhubaneswar in 1949.[8] Bhubaneswar was built as a modern city, designed by German architect Otto Königsberger with wide roads, gardens and parks.[11] Though part of the city followed the plan, it grew rapidly over the next few decades, outstripping the planning process.[12] According the first census of independent India, taken in 1951, the city's population was just 16,512. From 1952 to 1979, it was administered by a Notified Area Council or a nagar panchayat; a municipality was established only on 12 March 1979. By the 1991 census, the population of Bhubaneswar had increased to 411,542. Accordingly, on 14 August 1994, the Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation was established.[8]


Bhubaneswar is in Khordha district of Odisha. It is in the eastern coastal plains, along the axis of the Eastern Ghats mountains.[13] The city has an average altitude of 45 m (148 ft) above sea level.[13] It lies southwest of the Mahanadi River that forms the northern boundary of Bhubaneswar metropolitan area, within its delta.

The city is bounded by the Daya River to the south and the Kuakhai River to the east;[13] the Chandaka Wildlife Sanctuary and Nandankanan Zoo lie in the western and northern parts of Bhubaneswar, respectively.[11]

Bhubaneswar is topographically divided into western uplands and eastern lowlands, with hillocks in the western and northern parts.[13]Kanjia lake on the northern outskirts, affords rich biodiversity and is a wetland of national importance.[14] Bhubaneswar's soils are 65 per cent laterite, 25 per cent alluvial and 10 per cent sandstone.[15] The Bureau of Indian Standards places the city inside seismic zone III on a scale ranging from I to V in order of increasing susceptibility to earthquakes.[16] The United Nations Development Programme reports that there is "very high damage risk" from winds and cyclones.[16] The 1999 Odisha cyclone caused major damage to buildings, the city's infrastructure and cost many human lives.[17][18] Floods and waterlogging in the low-lying areas have become common due to unplanned growth.[15][19]

Urban structure[edit]

See also: List of neighbourhoods in Bhubaneswar

The Bhubaneswar urban development area consists of the Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation area, 173 revenue villages and two other municipalities spread over 393.57 square kilometres (151.96 sq mi).[20] The area under the jurisdiction of the Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation covers 135 square kilometres (52 sq mi).[21] The city is somewhat dumbbell-shaped with most of the growth taking place to the north, northeast and southwest.[22] The north–south axis of the city is widest, at roughly 22.5 kilometres (14.0 mi). Growth in the east is restricted due to the presence of Kuakhai River and by the wildlife sanctuary in the northwestern part.[22] The city can be broadly divided into the old town, planned city (or state capital), added areas and outer peripheral areas. It is subdivided into Units and Colonies.

The old town or "Temple Town", the oldest part of the city, is characterised by many temples, including the Lingaraj, Rajarani, and Muktesvara temples, standing alongside residential areas. This area is congested, with narrow roads and poor infrastructure.[22] Among neighbourhoods in the old town are Rajarani Colony, Pandav Nagar, Brahmeswar Bagh, Lingaraj Nagar, Gouri Nagar, Bhimatanki and Kapileswar.

The planned city was designed in 1948 to house the capital. It is subdivided into units, each with a high school, shopping centres, dispensaries and play areas. While most of the units house government employees, Unit V houses the administrative buildings, including the State Secretariat, State Assembly, and the Raj Bhavan. Private residential areas were later built in other areas of the planned city, including Saheed Nagar and Satya Nagar. Unit I, popularly known as the Market Building, was formed to cater to the shopping needs of the new capital's residents. Later, markets and commercial establishments developed along the Janpath and Cuttack-Puri Road at Saheed Nagar, Satya Nagar, Bapuji Nagar and Ashok Nagar. A dedicated institutional area houses educational and research institutes, including Utkal University, the Institute of Physics, the Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology and Sainik School. Indira Gandhi Park, Gandhi Park and the Biju Patnaik Park are located in the unit.[22]

The added areas are mostly areas lying north of National Highway 5, including Nayapalli, Jayadev Vihar, Chandrasekharpur and Sailashree Vihar, which were developed by Bhubaneswar Development Authority to house the growing population.[22]

The peripheral areas are outside the municipal boundary or have subsequently been included within the extended boundary, including Tomando, Patia and Raghunathpur. Most of these areas were developed in a haphazard manner, without proper planning.[23]

Bhubaneswar secured the top rank in the Smart city list in India.[24]


Bhubaneswar has a tropical savanna climate, designated Aw under the Köppen climate classification. The annual mean temperature is 27.4 °C (81.3 °F); monthly mean temperatures are 22–32 °C (72–90 °F).[25] Summers (March to June) are hot and humid, with temperatures in the low 30s C; during dry spells, maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) in May and June.[25] Winter lasts for only about ten weeks, with seasonal lows dipping to 15–18 °C (59–64 °F) in December and January. May is the hottest month, when daily temperatures range from 32–42 °C (90–108 °F). January, the coldest month, has temperatures varying from 15–28 °C (59–82 °F). The highest recorded temperature is 45 °C (113.0 °F), and the lowest is 12 °C (54 °F).[25]

Rains brought by the Bay of Bengal branch of the south west summer monsoon[26] lash Bhubaneswar between June and September, supplying it with most of its annual rainfall of 1,542 mm (61 in). The highest monthly rainfall total, 330 mm (13 in), occurs in August.[25]

Climate data for Bhubaneswar
Record high °C (°F)35.8
Average high °C (°F)28.7
Daily mean °C (°F)22.2
Average low °C (°F)15.6
Record low °C (°F)8.6
Average precipitation mm (inches)4
Average rainy days0.
Average relative humidity (%)60616366667483858376666070.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours253.4234.0237.8238.8242.9140.7107.2128.6150.8221.8217.5255.02,428.5
Source #1: NOAA (1971–1990)[27]
Source #2: IMD[28]


Bhubaneswar is an administrative, information technology, education and tourism city .[13] Bhubaneswar was ranked as the best place to do business in India by the World Bank in 2014.[29] Bhubaneswar has emerged as one of the fast-growing, important trading and commercial hub in the state and eastern India. Tourism is a major industry, attracting about 1.5 million tourists in 2011.[13][30] Bhubaneswar was designed to be a largely residential city with outlying industrial areas. The economy had few major players until the 1990s and was dominated by retail and small-scale manufacturing. With the economic liberalisation policy adopted by the Government of India in the 1990s, Bhubaneswar received investment in telecommunications, information technology (IT) and higher education.[13]

As of 2001, around 2.15% of the city's workforce was employed in the primary sector (agriculture, forestry, mining, etc.); 2.18% worked in the secondary sector (industrial and manufacturing); and 95.67% worked in the tertiary sector (service industries).[13]

In 2011, according to a study by Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India, Bhubaneswar had the highest rate of employment growth among 17 Tier-2 cities in India.[31] It has been listed among the top ten emerging cities in India by Cushman and Wakefield, taking into consideration factors like demographics, physical, social and real estate infrastructure, current level and scope of economic activities and government support.[32] In 2012, Bhubaneswar was ranked third among Indian cities, in starting and operating a business by the World Bank.[33]

Bhubaneswar has been traditionally home to handicrafts industry, including silver filigree work, appliqué work, stone and wood carvings and patta painting, which significantly contributes to the city's economy.[13] The late 2000s saw a surge of investments in the real estate, infrastructure, retail and hospitality sectors; several shopping malls and organised retails opened outlets in Bhubaneswar.[34][35][36][37]

The Department of Industries established four industrial areas in and around Bhubaneswar, in the Rasulgarh, Mancheswar, Chandaka, and Bhagabanpur areas.[13] In the informal sector, 22,000 vendors operate in regulated or unregulated vending zones.[38][39]

In 2009, Odisha was ranked ninth among Indian states in terms of software export by NASSCOM, with most IT/ITES companies established in Bhubaneswar.[40] In 2011–12, Odisha had a growth rate of 17% for software exports.[41] According to a 2012 survey, among the tier-2 cities in India, Bhubaneswar has been chosen as the best for conducting IT/ITES business.[42] The government fostered growth by developing of IT parks such as Infocity-1, Infovalley, STPI-Bhubaneswar and JSS STP.[43][44] Infocity was conceived as a five-star park, under the Export Promotion Industrial Parks (EPIP) Scheme to create infrastructure facilities for setting up information technology related industries. Infosys and Tech Mahindra have been present in Bhubaneswar since 1996. Other software companies include TCS, Wipro, IBM, Genpact, Firstsource, Mindtree, MphasiS, Ericsson, Semtech and Reliance Communications. Apart from the big multinationals, some 300 small and mid-size IT companies and business start ups have offices in Bhubaneswar.[44]


Bhubaneshwar population 


As per the 2011 census of India, Bhubaneswar had a population of 837,737, while the metropolitan area had a population of 881,988.[1][48] As per the estimate of IIT Kharagpur, which made a development plan, the Bhubaneswar-Cuttack Urban complex, consisting of 721.9 square kilometres (278.7 sq mi), has a population of 1.9 million (as of 2008[update]).[49] As of 2011[update], the number of males was 445,233, while the number of females were 392,504. The decadal growth rate was 45.90 per cent. Effective male literacy was 95.69 per cent, while female literacy was 90.26 per cent. About 75,237 were under six. Bhubaneswar's literacy rate is 93.15 per cent[1]—significantly higher than the national average of 74.04 per cent.[50]

According to the 2001 census, 11 per cent lived in 99 unauthorised and 47 authorised slums.[13] In 2009, the number of slums in Bhubaneswar increased to 377, mostly unauthorised.[51] Migration from rural areas and neighbouring states drove the growth of the slums.[52][53] According to the Bhubaneswar-Cuttack Police Commissionerate, the number of crime incidents reported in Bhubaneswar during 2011 was 3,350, decreasing from 4,417 incidents in 2010.[54][55]

The residents are known as Bhubaneswarites.[56] The main language spoken in the city is Odia, however, English and Hindi are understood by most residents. Although Odias comprise the vast majority, migrants from other states also live there. Growth in the information technology industry and education sector in Bhubaneswar changed the city's demographic profile; likely infrastructure strains and haphazard growth from demographic changes have been a cause of concern.

Civic administration and utilities[edit]

The Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation (BMC) oversees and manages civic infrastructure for the city's 67 wards.[57] Residents of each ward elect a corporator to the BMC for a five-year term. Standing committees handle urban planning and maintain roads, government-aided schools, hospitals and municipal markets.[58] As Bhubaneswar's apex body, the corporation discharges its functions through the mayor-in-council, which comprises a mayor, a deputy mayor and other elected members. The executive wing is headed by a Commissioner. BMC responsibilities include drainage and sewerage, sanitation, solid waste management and street lighting.[13] As of 2014[update], the Biju Janata Dal party controlled the BMC; the mayor was Ananta Narayan Jena and deputy mayor was K. Shanti.[59] The Bhubaneswar Development Authority is responsible for statutory planning and development and building regulation.[13]

As the seat of the Government of Odisha, Bhubaneswar is home to the Odisha Legislative Assembly and the state secretariat. Bhubaneswar has lower courts: the Court of Small Causes and the District Civil Court decide civil matters; the Sessions Court rules in criminal cases.[60] The Bhubaneswar–Cuttack Police Commissionerate, established in 2008, is a city police force with primary responsibilities in law enforcement and investigation in the Bhubaneswar-Cuttack area.[61][62] Shri Yogesh Bahadur Khurania is the police commissioner.[63]

Citizens of Bhubaneswar elect one representative to India's lower house, the Lok Sabha, and three representatives to the state legislative assembly, through the constituencies of Bhubaneswar North, Ekamra-Bhubaneswar and Bhubaneswar Central.[64][65]


Electricity is supplied by the state-operated Central Electricity Supply Utility of Odisha, or CESU.[15] Fire services are handled by the state agency Odisha Fire Service. Drinking water is sourced from the Mahanadi, Kuakhai and Daya rivers. Water supply and sewerage are handled by the Public Health Engineering Organisation.[13] State-owned Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, or BSNL, as well as private enterprises, among them Vodafone, Bharti Airtel, Reliance, Idea Cellular, Aircel, and Tata DoCoMo, are the leading telephone, cell phone and internet service providers in the city.[66][67]


See also: List of institutions of higher education in Odisha

Bhubaneswar is a centre for higher education in the Eastern Region with several government and privately funded Universities and colleges.

Primary & secondary education[edit]

Odia and English are the primary languages of instruction. Schools in Bhubaneswar follow the "10+2+3" plan for Regular Graduates and "10+2+4" plan for Technical studies. Schools in Bhubaneswar are either run by the state government or private organisations. Students typically enroll in schools that are affiliated with any of the following mediums of Education.

Notable private schools in the city include D.A.V. Public School, Chandrasekharpur, and DAV Public School, Unit-8.

Government schools located in Bhubaneswar include Kendriya Vidyalaya No.1, Sainik School, Badagada Government High School and Capital High School.

Government owned colleges in Bhubaneswar are:

Higher Education[edit]

Several Colleges are affiliated with Universities or institution based in Bhubaneswar or elsewhere in India. Most offer a wide range of programs in STEM & Applied Research and are rated highly by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, India


Engineering and Applied Sciences Institutions[edit]

Medical Institutions[edit]

There are 4 Medical Colleges in Bhubaneswar. AIIMS is a Government of India entity. The other 3 medical colleges are privately owned.

Management Institutions[edit]

Bhubaneswar also offers Tourism Education. The second Centre (Eastern Regional Centre) of IITTM (i.e. Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management) after Gwalior is established here since 1996. One IATA Authorised Training Centre (ATC) is also located in the city Several Regional management colleges also have Tourism and Travel related courses in their curriculum.


Remains of the ancient city of Sisupalgarh, on the outskirts of Bhubaneswar, dated between 3rd century BCE
Hathigumpha inscriptions at the Udayagiri and Khandagiri caves near Bhubaneswar
Daya River at the foothills of Dhauli
Skyline of Bhubaneswar from Khandagiri hill
Bhubaneswar Schematic Tourist Map - By Barsha, NID Bangalore.
Bhubaneswar City at Night
Pathani Samanta Planetarium Bhubaneswar
Institute of Management & Information Science, BBSR
Meteorological Centre, Bhubaneswar
Panoramic view of Jaydev Vihar interchange at night
Others include Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs
Odisha State Secretariat building
Institute Of Physics Bhubaneswar library
All India Institute Of Medical Sciences Bhubaneswar

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