Transportation In Sri Lanka Essay
Better public transport key to reducing city traffic congestion, experts say
By Bandula SirimannaView(s):
Sri Lanka incurs a huge economic loss of around Rs. 40 billion annually due to road traffic congestion and air pollution with too many vehicles on a limited road network.
File pic by Hasitha Kulasekera shows city traffic on a week day
Unless the authorities take measures to modernise and improve public transport, the country cannot curb this massive, unproductive cost, noted University of Moratuwa transport and logistics management expert Amal S. Kumarage.
Speaking at an interesting discussion on traffic issues including road management and the Colombo road network on Tuesday organised by the Sunday Times Business Club(STBC), Prof. Kumarage stressed the need to implement a pro -public transport policy because the widening of roads and building expressways, elevated highways and/or flyovers will not provide solutions to urban transport problems although it may solve isolated individual problems.
He noted that it is essential to make the shift from private to public transport to tackle the problem of congestion due to the increase in vehicles. When the average speed decreases, it leads to longer travel times, causing an economic loss as a result of high fuel consumption and rise in pollution levels.
However he pointed out that there was no development evident during the past three decades in the public and private bus service and it has gone from bad to worse. The train service – the other possible option – was not even considered by the authorities as yet.
Roads are full with traffic congestion as an average 250,000 vehicles, made up of 15,000 buses, 10,000 trucks and 225,000 private vehicles, enter Colombo daily.
Around 2.7 million vehicles are on the roads, though the number of vehicles registered was over 4.4 million vehicles.
According to statistics a large number of Sri Lankans spend more time on the roads, paying more for fuel, as the number of vehicles on the roads is rapidly increasing and it takes longer to reach one’s destination.
Private companies incur at least 10 percent loss due to heavy fuel bills and in addition they suffer man hour losses as well due to a decline in productivity even after providing vehicles for some of their top executives, he revealed.
Panellists from left: Camillus Abeygunawardene, Amal Kumarage, Rohan Abeywickrema and Chathuranga Perera (STBC President). Pix byRanjit Perera
According to latest statistics there are 130 vehicles per 1,000 people, out of which 66 per cent would be motor cycles while three-wheelers and four-wheelers (small and large) make up 45 vehicles per 1,000 people.
If there is no vehicle fleet management, like in the last 30 years, there will be problems regarding space, he said.
He suggested that there should be a restriction on ownership of vehicles, like in Singapore, where a vehicle permit is auctioned on a quota basis by courts, which will be more expensive than a vehicle.
Permit holders are not allowed to drive their vehicles wherever they wish. A toll is payable, while a vehicle should carry a minimum number of passengers, he disclosed. “Singapore has a stringent traffic management policy which restricts vehicle ownership and they invest heavily on upgrading the public transport system,” he revealed.
He said that with an 8 per cent economic growth anticipated, vehicle growth will be around 10 per cent when capacity can only expand by say 3 per cent per annum and this will be worse than a spike and it will remain at 10 per cent which will be a permanent surge, he said.
He noted that the demand for road space will increase rapidly. Currently Sri Lanka has a vehicle population of around 4 million. “If we expect the economy to grow at 8 per cent, the country’s vehicle population may increase to 5 million,” he said adding that there will be 250 vehicles per 1,000 people which are likely to be concentrated around the city.
Sri Lanka can impose different car restraint policies, but alternatives should be available. Park & Rides, bus lanes, cycle ways, improved transit, etc are options used by other cities very successfully, he added.
Citing an example, he said that traveling in Singapore is both easy and economical. There is an efficient public transportation network, which offers taxis, buses, and the modern Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) rail system.
He said the ad hoc construction of flyovers and highways would not provide a proper solution to the prevailing conditions of heavy traffic in the city of Colombo. Citing an example of a one way system which has shifted the congestion to other areas, he said the Baseline road in Dematagoda which had two lanes before was made into six lanes to reduce traffic.
“Traffic at the Baseline road has increased after being made into six lanes more than what it was with two lanes due to more vehicles on the road and no proper traffic plan,” Prof. Kumarage said.
He noted that a proper town plan, friendly public transport facilities and a sufficient operational traffic system is needed to resolve the current congestion in the Colombo city by creating friendlier public space with new metro systems, public transport terminals and bus traffic trunk systems, like the city of Bogota.
A bus rapid transit (BRT) solution could be implemented faster and at a much lower cost to prevent gridlock in Sri Lanka’s capital Colombo.
The state has been investing heavily in building a road network in recent years, but urban congestion cannot be solved by roads alone, he said, adding that several high ways in the North including Vavuniya had been rebuilt but are used by few motorists and a small number of pedestrians.
Section of the audience.
Such infrastructure development will not help the country any way, he said adding that the traffic problem in Battaramulla area will become a major issue with construction of Defence headquarters following the US pentagon style.
Rohan Abeywickrema, Past President of Institute of Transport and logistics Management, pointed out that this is the time that a new measure and concept of vehicle restraint measures or demand management measures have to come in where the limited road space is managed, leading to efficient traffic management.
The Sri Lanka railway system covering almost all parts of the country should be modernised and popularised providing necessary parking facilities for vehicles and easy access for buses in order to operate a combined transport service.
Camillus Abeygunawardena, Retired DIG – who served as the Head of Traffic Police for a considerable period, said that the police have found it difficult to handle traffic in a fair manner due to political interference and break down in law.
The other main reason was the lack of proper training for newly recruited traffic policemen.
Unless these matters are rectified, it is difficult to streamline the traffic control by the Police, he said.
The club is sponsored by Etisalat, hosted by Cinnamon Lakeside and supported by Hameedia. The STBC is fostered and developed by the Sunday Times to guide young business leaders of today. It has a membership of over 50 many of who are young Managing Directors, CEOs and corporate executives.
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|Capital||Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte, but Colombo is the commercial capital|
|Currency||Sri Lankan rupee (LKR)|
|Population||20,064,776 (July 2006 estimate)|
|Language||Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (official and national language) 20%, other 6% |
English commonly used in government & spoken competently by c. 9%
|Religion||Buddhist 70%, Hindu 15%, Christian 8%, Muslim 8% (1999)|
|Electricity||230V, 50Hz British G type plug most common + fewer (older) installations of D (round pin plug used in India).|
Sri Lanka, formerly known as Ceylon, is in SouthernAsia. It is an island country in the Indian Ocean, south of India.
Sri Lanka has more than 2,550 years of continuous written history by means of the Mahawansha, and was also mentioned in several ancient Indian texts. One of the most famous is the Ramayana, in which the island, which was referred to as Lanka, was the island fortress of the king Ravana. And over many centuries Sri Lanka has had many names.
The Sinhalese arrived in Sri Lanka late in the 6th century BC, probably from northern India. Buddhism was introduced beginning in about the mid-3rd century BC, and a great civilization developed at such cities as Anuradhapura (kingdom from c. 200 BC to c. 1000 AD) and Polonnaruwa (c. 1070 to 1200). Other notable but relatively more recent kingdoms are Dambadeniya, Yapahuwa, Gampola, Kandy and Jaffna Kingdoms.
Partially occupied by the Portuguese in the 16th century and by the Dutch in the 17th century, the coastal parts island was ceded to the British in 1796, and became a british colony in 1802. The entire island was ceded to the British in 1815. As Ceylon, it became independent in 1948; the name was changed to Sri Lanka in 1972.
In May 2009 government military forces defeated the Tamil Tigers' separatist movement and ended a brutal 26 year-long war that began in 1983, thus opening up a new chapter in its history.
Since Sri Lanka is a tropical country, you can expect the rain anytime of the year in different parts of the country. However, the two major rainy seasons are North-East monsoon (October to January) predominantly affecting the east coast and South-West monsoon (May to July) which predominantly affects the west & south coast of sri lanka.
Being an island, the climate of Sri Lanka changes dramatically from one part of the country to another. For example at Nuwara Eliya, in the hills of Central Sri Lanka, has a temperature around 5-20°C throughout the year, whereas Hambanthota, located in the dry zone, has a temperature consistently around 30-35°C.
Mostly low, flat to rolling plain with mountains in the south-central interior rising to 2,524m at Piduruthalagala.
Sinhala, spoken by the majority Sinhalese, and Tamil, spoken by the minority Tamil and Muslim groups, are Sri Lanka's two official languages. English is commonly used in most cities, especially Colombo, Kandy and Galle, and by government and tourism officials. But while most of the people in Colombo can speak English, don't expect everyone, everywhere to be able to speak it fluently. In the beach and tourist areas you will have no problem with English. Most people in rural villages, however, cannot speak any English, beyond a few simple words.
- Sinhala Language The greeting in Sinhala is Ayubowan, which means "May you live longer"; "Thank you" is Bohoma sthuthi and "How are you?" is Kohomada, pronounced "Ko homede""
- Tamil Language: The greeting in Tamil is Vanakkam; 'Thank you' is Nandri.
Sinhala writing is much more curved than Tamil. After a while, you'll learn how to distinguish between the two.
|Central Province (Kandy, Matale, Nuwara Eliya)|
Here are the highlands with a lot of beautiful tea plantations, waterfalls, valleys and streams. The highest mountain of Piduruthalagala and the famous Worlds End are situated in Nuwaraeliya.
|Northern Province (Jaffna)|
After the end of the 30 year civil war this region is slowly returning to its status as an important tourist attraction. Some areas remain unsafe and have yet to be cleared of mines.
- Colombo — the commercial capital of Sri Lanka
- Kandy — the spiritual heart of the country, home to a tooth of the Buddha
- Nuwara Eliya — has the coolest climate in Sri Lanka and mountains covered with Tea plants
- Anuradhapura — ruins of ancient capitals (partially restored)
- Polonnaruwa — ruins of ancient capitals (partially restored)
- Batticaloa — the main town in eastern region- Called land of singing fish.
- Jaffna — the northern Capital of Sri Lanka
- Galle — a home for a Dutch fort, and a a gathering point for travelers from the nearby beach resort villages
- Ratnapura — City Of Gems, nothing much for tourists
- Negombo - Dutch and Portuguese colonial remains
- Kalpitiya - Idyllic isolated remote beaches, wind surfing & kite surfing along the lagoon, dolphin & whale watching, snorkeling ,SUP in the lagoon
- Wilpattu National Park - Natural Lakes,Wildlife including a wide variety of birds
- Minneriya National Park - Annual gathering of Elephants during dry season around the lake
- Sigiriya - The right spot to climb the beautiful Sigiriya rock.
- Wadduwa - Beach with golden sands on the southwestern coast of srilanka
- Beruwela - Beach resort town not too far from Colombo,(moragalla beach is nearby)
- Bentota - Beach resort on the south coast
- Hikkaduwa - Highly popular beach village on the south west coast
- Mirissa - Small beach village on the south coast close to Matara with two good surfing spots
- Weligama - popular tourist beach on the south coast with several boutique hotels
- Unawatuna - Beach resort on the south coast very close to Galle
- Tangalle - Palm tree lined beach with white soft sand and turquoise water
- Adam's Peak - Pilgrimage mountain towering an impressive landscape, only reachable by foot
- Kitulgala - Pristine wet zone rain forest, white water rafting for adventure seekers- 4 hours from Colombo
- Horton's Plains and World's End
- Haputale - Small hill town in the cool highlands
- Ella - Small yet vibrant village in the beautiful midlands. Visit now, before concrete hotels start to appear.
- Sinharaja Rainforest - A world Heritage nature reserve
- Udawalawe National Park - One of the best place to see wild elephants in Sri Lanka, with also an Elephant Transit Home nextdoor
- Yala National Park - Wildlife Jeep Safari
- Trincomalee - Beautiful beaches along the East Coast like Nilaveli (15 km north of city), Uppuveli (4km north of city),diving & Snorkeling at pigeon island
- Pasikuda- excellent beaches along East Coast for swimming, snorkel and dive
- Arugam Bay - Southeast coast beach town with several top surfing spots for summer season
See also: Sacred sites of the Indian sub-continent
Visitors to Sri Lanka having tattoo of Buddha or other tattoos of religious significance may be arrested and deported: if you want to visit despite the warning it is advised to cover up religious tattoos at all times . There are no issues with non-religious tattoos.
Smoking in public places is prohibited(including inside buses and trains). Violators can be prosecuted.
Photographing with your back to statues of the Buddha or posing in an inappropriate manner next to them are prohibited. Violators will be booked.
Nationals of the Maldives, Seychelles and Singapore may obtain a free visa on arrival. Maldivian and Singaporean nationals may enter for 30 days (extendable up to 150), whilst Seychellois nationals may enter for 60 days (but no more than 90 days per calendar year).
Nationals of Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Syria and Uganda must obtain a visa in advance from a Sri Lankan diplomatic mission.
All other nationals not specified above may obtain a visa on arrival, provided that they have completed the electronic travel authorization (ETA) procedure either prior to travel or on arrival in Sri Lanka. This electronic authorization is valid for 3 months, starting from the day it has been approved. It allows for two entries, which means you can enter the country twice during the 30 days entry (allowing for a break in e.g. Maldives). A visitor wishing to stay more than 30 days in Sri Lanka may apply for an extension. The short visit visa may be extended up to 90 days from the date of arrival at the first instance and further 90 days at the second instance.
In the event of a rejection, the system will send a referral notification to the applicant and he/she needs to contact the nearest Sri Lanka Overseas Mission for necessary assistance. If your country doesn’t have a Sri Lanka Overseas Mission please contact the 24 hour emigration hotline on 0094 719 967 888. However, the Department maintains a no refund policy on your visa application fees.
It is highly recommended that you complete your ETA prior to travel, partially to avoid the queues but also as a safeguard. If a referral notice is given if you complete your ETA on arrival in Sri Lanka, you will be deported.
Visa charges are $20 for SAARC countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal and Pakistan) and $35 for others.
IMPORTANT: As of February 2015, immigration authorities at Colombo airport are very demanding with respect to the accuracy of the passport number on your electronic travel authorisation obtained online. A single digit mistake is taken as a reason to force you to buy a new visa and refer you to some obscure government office in Colombo for refunds of your online payments. Be careful about the digit 1 (one) vs. the capital letter I and the digit 0 (zero) vs. the capital letter O. The number should exactly match the machine-readable section of your passport, and not anything else (for example, Russian passports have a non-alphanumeric number sign that should be completely excluded).
Extensions can be made at the Department of Immigration (Hotline: 1962; Phone: 94-11-5329000; "Suhurupaya", Sri Subhuthipura Road, Battaramulla.; M-F 09:00-16:30), in Battaramulla. Open 08:30 to 15:30. (14:30 as of 01/16) The department sets the cost in US dollars, but you pay in rupees. A visa extension gives you a full three months in the country and you can apply for your extension almost as soon as you arrive (the 30-day visa given upon entry is included in the three months). A further three-month extension is possible, but you must again pay the extension fee plus another LKR10,000. Extensions beyond this are at the discretion of the department, and incur a LKR15,000 fee plus the extension fee.
See above for fees for the first 90-day extension. (The fee varies greatly. US$20-30 for many most countries listed, US$54 for UK passport holders, US$100 for US passport, and US$200! for Tanzanian passport holders. 01/16)
The whole process takes 1hr++. Rule #1 applies .. Get There Early. Beat the Colombo gridlock which starts around 7:30am. For directions just ask for "Passport Office". You can download the visa-extension form from the website you got your ETA or get one on arrival. Go to the 3rd-floor office. It is open from 08:00. Show your filled-out form (plus photo glued on) at the desk closest to the door and you'll be given a number token. Keep this throughout the process. Interviews commence at 08:30 in the booths marked with numbers and letters. Someone comes out periodically and calls the next token numbers to be processed. The interviewer will take your documents. Return to your seat (if you're lucky) and wait for your number to display on the screen above the counter nearby. Show your token and get your documents back. Take these to the payment counter opposite, pay fee hand over documents and get fee receipt. Once again wait for your number to show on the same screen as before. Then you wait 30 minutes or so while your passport works its way through the system and is returned to you. Check the visa is correct.
You will need your passport, and maybe onward ticket a credit card or foreign exchange receipts.
Tourist visas for India can be obtained at the High Commission of India (242 1605; [email protected]; 36-38 Galle Rd, Col 3). The cost of a six-month visa depends on your nationality, and you’ll need to supply two photos. It takes at least five days to process a tourist visa, but only one day if you are a foreign resident in Sri Lanka. Lines tend to be very long. You can also obtain an Indian visa in Kandy at the Assistant High Commission of India (081-222 4563; [email protected]; Box 47, 31 Rajapihilla Mawatha). Kandy makes a good alternative to Colombo because it’s not as busy.
SriLankan Airlines (flight code UL) is the national flagship carrier operating to and from Colombo-Bandaranayake International Airport (IATA: CMB). Flights are available from cities throughout Europe, Southeast Asia, Australia, China, Japan, the Middle East, India, and Pakistan. SriLankan Air also flies to the nearby destinations such as Chennai, Trivandrum, Mumbai, Delhi, Cochin, Bangalore, Coimbatore and the Maldives.
KLM connects many major European cities and others worldwide to Colombo with daily flights from Amsterdam to Colombo. The airline operates brand new Dreamliner wide body aircraft on these routes.
Emirates Airlines connects to Colombo with several flights daily from Dubai and Singapore to Colombo. The airline operates 777-300ER wide body aircraft on these routes.
Etihad Airways connects Abu Dhabi with Colombo. This flight is also codeshared with other airlines from Etihad group (eg. Air Serbia).
Other options are Jet Airways or its offshoot Jetlite.
Qatar Airways has 3 daily non-stop flights from Doha to Colombo.
Jet Airways has many flights a day to Colombo from Bangalore and Mumbai
SpiceJet have one flight a day to Colombo from Madurai and Chennai.
Air Asia now operates from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia to Colombo, Sri Lanka. This opens ups cheap flight for visitors from South East Asia as well as those who are visiting South Asia and then heading to South-East Asia (or vice-versa).
Singapore Airlines flies daily between Colombo and Singapore.
Turkish Airlines offers direct flight from Istanbul to Colombo.
Oman Air has announced flights to Colombo via Muscat and Male, they seem to have special prices for their new destinations' start (Frankfurt, Munich, Paris, Male, Colombo).
Ukrainian International Airlines now has a flight from Kiev to Colombo
Other airlines such as Singapore Airlines, Malaysia Airlines, Thai International Airways, Cathay Pacific, Saudi Arabian and Spicejet (India) operate to Colombo-Bandaranayake from their respective home bases.
There are no direct flights that reach Sri Lanka from cities outside Asia, the Middle East and Europe. From the American West Coast, the distance is almost half the globe. Depending on your preferences and how much spare time you have, you can consider a stopover in Europe or SE Asia or take a non-stop flight over the North Pole to New Delhi or Mumbai from Chicago, Newark, New York City (JFK), or Toronto. In many cases, this may be the fastest route, but check if an Indian transit visa is required. Another fast and easy idea is to use Middle Eastern Airlines from the US with stopovers in either Qatar, Bahrain, or the UAE (no transit visa required). For example Dubai based airline Emirates offers daily flights from SFO, LAX, Houston (IAH),SEA (Seattle) and Toronto (YYZ) with a very short stopover before the short flight to Colombo. Emirates Airlines offer non-stop service to Colombo two to three times daily from Dubai. SriLankan Airlines is a member of Oneworld alliance which allow through passage with American Airlines, as well as several Asian, European, and Middle East airlines.
The Tuticorin-Colombo passenger ferry service, suspended for years due to the civil war, commenced services in June 2011, but this service is currently suspended. The Scotia Prince ran twice a week until November 2011 when the ferry was discontinued indefinitely. The company has yet to announce an official date for resumption of the service. 
If you would like to travel via cargo ship, please note that according to the customs office in Tuticorin it is considered illegal for a cargo ship to transport passengers from the Tuticorin Port to Sri Lanka.
Sri Lanka has been included in its destinations list for 2011 by American cruise operator Zegrahm Expeditions . The line plans four voyages that stop in Sri Lanka in 2011.Large passenger ships recently docked in Trincomalee and Hambantota harbors.
Self Drive Tuk-Tuk Hire
Arguably, the most authentic way to experience Sri Lanka is by hiring and driving your own Tuk-Tuk. Some travellers report that they have been able to strike a deal directly with local owners for the use of their vehicle. This is not recommended, however, due to licensing and insurance concerns. Since December 2016, Tuk Tuk Rental Sri Lanka has been providing socially responsible, self drive Tuk Tuk hire for tourists and travellers visiting Sri Lanka. Tuk Tuks can be collected from Mount Lavinia, Colombo, or delivered nationwide. Rentals include comprehensive insurance, 24 hour support and a number of other extras to make your trip safe and hassle-free.They even provide you with your own Sri Lankan driver's license.
The most common mode of transport in Sri Lanka is a three-wheeler (Tri-Shaw). Also known as Tuk-Tuks from the noise of their horns. These operate in a manner similar to taxis, and in many situations are a convenient and highly cost-efficient way to get around. Safety is a concern however, as none of them have seat belts and they are open to the sides.
Three-wheelers are ubiquitous in Sri Lanka ,You probably have not experienced everything Sri Lanka has to offer until you travel in one. On any given street, you'll hardly have to wait more than a couple of minutes without one going by that you can wave down. If you're traveling with luggage, there are slightly larger three-wheelers with more space for your bags that you can look for.
Some are metered and some are not. If available then always prefer the metered and make sure they turn the meter on. This trip will cost you much less than an agreed price. If metered are not available (specially in countryside or smaller places) then agree for a total price (which will be a few times more than normal if you are a tourist).
Public transport is cheaper by far, and most three-wheel drivers tend to over-price foreigners. The best price you can get is about LKR50-75 per km for short journeys and about LKR30-50 for long journeys ( more than 15km). If you do come across a metered Tri-Shaw make sure the meter is switched on.
In Colombo, Tuk Tuks flag down at LKR50 for the first km, and charges LKR50 for each km. There are some Tuk Tuks that charge only LKR35 for each km after the flag down price. 10PM-5PM carries are night surcharge at around 15% (LKR 57.50 flag down and per km).
Rented cars usually turn out cheaper than three-wheelers, and are less prone to road accidents--and are recommended by most hotels.
With Driver: Rented cars often come with their own drivers. Often the automobile itself is free, whereas the driver will charge a fee for his services. Some drivers/guides are government-licensed; some are extremely knowledgeable and multi-lingual, specializing in historical and cultural knowledge, and environment/natural history for your visits to the ancient sites and the natural reserves. Some of them may charge extra money, if you want switch on the A/C. You can book good cars from most of the Colombo hotel reception counters or from special counters located next to it. They will provide hotel Logo marked cars for rental with their own drivers. They are good for airport drops or moving within the city. Check the price first before you book it.
Self Drive: First of all you need to have your international licence from your own country with you and also you must get it validated in Sri Lanka licencing centre. You may not drive in Sri Lanka without it! All rental companies will direct you to the right place or even take you there with their driver to help you through the process which can be speeded up if you pay a premium to your Sri Lankan driver who can then expedite the process.
There are several rental companies at the airport before you go out but its cheaper to get another company from town such as Malkey, Kings Rent a Car or Casons - they have a good range of cars and are very customer friendly. Expect to leave a high cash deposit for any vehicle you rent. Check for damage and that everything works prior to accepting the car. Insurance is included (just in case check with your company) and your own responsibility is around 300 EUR.
Driving in Sri Lanka is on the left side and traffic is quite hectic - recommended only for confident and experienced drivers. There seems to be no rules other than bigger vehicles have the right of way. Don't be surprised to have a big bus coming at you on your side of the road so you have to get out of the way. Honking is common as a friendly "here I come" warning everywhere. Note that central Sri Lanka has a lot of steep mountain roads and difficult to reach hotels so if you plan to have a fully loaded car and drive in central areas then at least rent a vehicle with a minimum of 1,5L engine. 4x4's are the best as you see more and can manage most terrains and transverse small fords.
Night driving requires exceedingly strong concentration especially on the busier highways such as Colombo to Kandy. Watch for police speed traps there's no point in breaking the limits as you will get fined and you also risk hitting someone as motorbikes and tuk tuks pull out from side roads without looking and people and animals are walking along the sides of the road.
You can rent motorbikes or join a motorbike tour from several places in Negombo. The roads are generally good, the distances not too far and you have the freedom to go where you want to. The locals are always helpful with directions. Its better to have an existing motorbike license for insurance.  offers good bikes in Negombo. If you want to ride motorbike in Sri Lanka, you must have a valid motorbike driving license along with valid third party insurance and must wear helmet including the pillion passenger. It is against the law to ride more than 250 cc capacity motorcycles on the public roads. Also local police requires you to switch on the head light even on day time. Don't give your passport to the rental service providers, just give them the photocopy of it.
Another cheap and good idea to go around Sri Lanka is to ride a Scooter, if you are familiar to ride it and have a license to ride it. It is available for rent in Negombo  and mount Lavania areas. It can be rented on daily basis with unlimited kilometers.
Tour Operators are happy to get you a van and a driver who will take you all over the island but most of roads are narrow and slow, Be aware when you are calculating times because you cant drive as per the Navigator time-frame. Also remember max speed limits for highways 100kmh, Main Roads 60kmh (70kmh allowed only if clearly mentioned on the road) and 50kmh city limits. If you book off-the-cuff when you arrive, ask to be shown on a map where you are going before agreeing to any 'tour' of the island and research before you arrive so that you have a clear idea of where you might like to travel. Senseless backtracking to lengthen the trip and increase the cost is a real danger, as is a driver's wish to take you on unwanted shopping expeditions in an effort to gain commission. Travel websites specializing in Sri Lanka are easily found and have greatly increased the choice that is readily available to independent travelers seeking tailor-made tours. The best of them will produce clearly-stated travel itineraries and some are flexible enough to make late changes to itineraries. Ask to see their Booking Conditions and anti-fraud policies.
Ecotourism is a form of alternative travel that aims to tackle social and environmental issues thanks to national and international tourism. As Sri Lanka is a developing country, many communities are glad to benefit from the tourism incomes.
The Sri Lanka Ecotourism Foundation is a national non-profit organization that is creating a very complete and trustworthy ecotourism network throughout Sri Lanka. They provide ecotourism certifications for local companies and make sure the environment conservation issues and respect for the cultural heritage are managed efficiently. The foundation has received Presidential Tourism Awards For Sri Lanka Tourism 2010 'Outstanding Contribution for Tourism Sri Lanka'. That is possible to make affordable ecotours with the foundation, but also to make "voluntourism" projects (travelling throughout the island while directly helping the local communities).
Several tourism websites such as Responsible Travel, which was established with Body Shop Founder Anita Roddick's support, also promote responsible trips to various countries including Sri Lanka. Several villas and hotels are listed on the site, for example, Templeberg Villa and Sigiriya EcoLodge Tree Houses and Fair Trade and Wildlife Conservation Tours.
Taxis are a better way of getting around Colombo than three wheelers as, due to the metering, they often turn out to be cheaper. Rates are about USD0.55 and they have full day packages (approx 8 hours and 80km) for around USD40.
They will also take you outstation for around USD0.30-0.35 per km with no waiting charges. You can also set up your own itinerary and travel around that way as opposed to whatever the tour operator tells you.
In Colombo and suburbs "Budget Taxi" are getting popular. It cost lower than normal taxis but bit higher than tuk-tuks. These are small cars and usually operated by reputed companies. This is a safer and cost efficient way to travel in Colombo. All Budget Taxis are metered.
Uber is now available in Sri Lanka around Colombo providing UberX (slightly expensive, but nicer cars) and UberGo (the inexpensive option, mostly Maruti 800, Alto K10, Suzuki Wagon R, etc). Uber Go cars are plentiful throughout the Colombo region, and works out cheaper if you travel more than 2KM. UberX Base fare Rs. 100 and Rs. 50 per KM plus Rs. 2 per minute. UberGO Base fare Rs. 50 and Rs. 30 per KM plus Rs. 2 per minute.
You may use Pickme Sri lankan Taxi service, you may download the apps from major app stores. It's cheap and safe,you may order tuktuks and mini cars too.
For those on a budget, buses are everywhere. They are a very cheap way to get from the airport into Colombo and it leaves from just outside the terminal. They're sometimes crowded and uncomfortable, but they get you around for almost nothing; it costs about a dollar to get half-way across the island. If you're planning on splashing out, AC buses run most routes for twice the price, which offer air-conditioning and a guaranteed seat. However, they're still uncomfortable. Bus stations are confusing places, especially the big ones, but almost everyone will be delighted to practice their English and help you. Also, when travelling by bus, it is local etiquette in most buses to provide or give up the very front passenger seats to members of the clergy such as monks or priests if they are present.
The buses, branded Lanka Ashok Leyland, come in three flavours. Red and blue buses are government owned, the colorful buses are privately owned. Red government buses travel vast distances across the country. Blue buses will stay in the region. Both of these are somewhat punctual and generally state their route in Singalese, Tamil and English. Keep in mind that a bus displaying a static "Colombo - Galle" sign, might well be on it's way to Colombo instead of Galle. The colorful buses are privately owned. They are more expensive but also generally more comfortable, as well as less punctual.
There are 4 types of buses that you can take.
Normal buses: This is the most cheapest and most common variant. The bus sign is usually in either dark red (Central province), or yellow (everywhere else). They will usually have a 2-2 or 2-3 seat configuration, and stops several times along the way. To get into the bus, you have to signal the bus (like you would hail a taxi), or the bus will skip the bus stop sometimes. There is a conductor inside that will collect your fare. They are legally required to issue you a ticket, bus this is often not honored for short distances. The minimum charge is LKR 9 (as of Nov 2016), and good enough for 10-15 minute rides. They usually have two doors, and luggage storage overhead. To get off, just tell the conductor, or ring the bell. The bell is either an electric switch, or a string to pull.
Semi-luxury buses: They are supposed to be slightly better than the normal ones above, but in reality, they are worse that the "Normal" buses mentioned above. 2-3 seats, with hardly any space to stand up. These buses are required to offer a seat to every passenger, but the driver will happily jam-pack the bus. In some routes (such as Colombo - Kataragama), almost every bus is a semi-luxury bus, leaving you no other choice. If you do have a choice, opt for the option above, or the ones below. They charge 1.5 times of the normal fair, but the conductor often rounds up the amount to nearest 10. The destination sign of these buses will be in blue color. For above and this category, there is a close luggage compartment at the back of the bus. If you travel long distance, ask the conductor to store your luggage there. No additional charges for luggage.
Luxury buses (A/C buses): Carrying a green color text in the destination sign, these buses are the most comfortable and widely available ones. They are air-conditioned, charges 2 times of regular fare, and seats only about 30-40 people. Seat configuration is usually 1-2, and rarely, a 2-2. Conductors of these buses can speak better English, and the locals will help you to find your location because there are only a few people. There are no overhead luggage spaces, but you can put your baggage under the seat, near the entrance, or at the back of the bus. Seats are usually smaller, and does not recline, but still, they are quite comfortable compared to the other buses above.
Super luxury buses: These buses operate only in limited routes. As of now, Colombo-Galle, Colombo-Matara, and Colombo-Kataragama are popular routes. Colombo-Matara and Colombo-Galle buses take the E1 expressway, and fares are fixed (450-550 LKR range). The Colombo-Kataragama bus only has a couple departures, and is often full, and you may need to prebook one by calling the bus company. This bus takes the E1 all the way, and uses normal roads for the rest of the journey. Other than those, there are overnight Colombo-Jaffna (bus routes 48 and 15) buses leaving Jaffna and Colombo from 6-8pm, and reaching the destination at about 4-5am. They are sleeper buses, and are probably the most comfortable buses available in Sri Lanka. Reservation is necessary, and appears to charge about LKR 1000-1500.
The long distance bus tickets can be purchased from BusSeat.lk, an online bus booking website. This bus reservation facility is available only for inter-provincial buses which are regulated by National Transport Commission of Sri Lanka.
All buses will stop every 4-5 hours for a snack/toilet break. The quality of the toilets is questionable. Stick to packages biscuits, drinks, and other snacks as even the locals find the lack of hygiene at the restaurants that serve the buses that stop for these breaks. After the break, the bus driver will honk as they leave. They will not take a head count or anything, so be sure to note your bus and get back as soon as possible. As the buses leave, there will be some guy shouting in Sinhalese that a particular bus is about to leave. Since Sinhalese names for some cities are different from the English (Kandy is called "Nuwara" in Sinhalese, Negambo is "Meegamuwa", etc), it is easy to miss this notice.
Sri Lanka has an extensive railway system serving most major towns and cities in the island. There are special Observation cars for tourists that like to take in the scenery.
Trains can be slower than buses, depending if you are on a line that offers an express train or not, but more comfortable and even less expensive than buses.
You can look up train schedules on the official site:  or using one of the two Android Apps available: . Be advised, however, that these will only give you results for direct connections between stations.
There are 3 classes of railway cars, although 1st and 2nd class are only available on some Intercity and Express trains. Traveling 3rd class is not as bad as it may sound. Often the difference between 3rd and 2nd class is only a missing arm rest between seats.
Trains are generally crowded, especially in the morning and late afternoon. Also, observation car seats for the lines popular with tourists (like the Colombo-Kandy line) are often booked out several days in advance in the peak season. So whenever possible you should get a reservation beforehand: see  and  for more information
The Railway system in Sri Lanka is very picturesque when entering the hill country because of the winding tracks along the mountains especially on the Badullu-Nanu Oya line. Make sure, if you can, to sit on the right side of the train, as it offers the better view.
Travel by Train is itself a journey to remember, be it traveling to Central Sri Lanka or travelling on the coastal line is just amazing.Highly recommended to travel by train if you are travelling outside Colombo. The Hill train to Badulla is a amazing journey. Preferably choose the express trains, and try to get a reservation beforehand, if you can. The newly renovated Jaffna railway line is expanded up to Kankesanthurai station in the North. So you can travel in comfort over to the Jaffna town by booking a seat from Colombo Fort. A third class seat can be reserved for just LKR 500/- for the Jaffna and Colombo bound trains. A fully A/C journey in the luxury Express train between Jaffna and Colombo Fort is priced at LKR 1,500/-. This luxury Express A/C train is starts from Mt.Lavinia at 5.10 AM and will reach Jaffna by 12.00 noon. A/C Train leaves Jaffna at 01.45 PM and will reach Colombo by 08.00 PM. You can book your Train seat up to 45 days in advance from Colombo, Kanday, Wellawatte, Vavuniya, Jaffna and other important railway stations. Keep your ticket with you as they will request you to provide your ticket before you exit from the station.
Cinnamon Air, a partner of Sri Lankan Airlines operates small Seaplane service to destinations such as Nuwara Eliya, Kandy, Galle and many more locations. This is perfect for Photography trips because you can get a bird's eye view of the island and takes less time to get to a destination than using the road. Also the seaplanes land on picturesque lakes and tanks around the island.
Helitours operates domestic flights between Colombo City Airport - Ratmalana, Jaffna and Trincomalee
Tourist seasons in different locations in Sri Lanka vary with the monsoon rains.To get into many of the tourist sites in Sri Lanka, you, as a foreigner will be charged up to x10 more than locals. For people of SAARC countries, the price is less than/half for "foreigners".
Go to Kandy to see the Sri Dhalada Maligawa and Peradeniya Botanical Gardens. Also don't miss out on the traditional Sri Lanka dance performance held every day at 17:00 in the city hall.
Go to Matale and climb the Sigiriya or Pidurangala Rock, see the ancient frescoes and enjoy a panoramic view of the area.
Go to Raththota, Matale and climb Riverstone, see the Mini Worlds' End and directly travel to Wasgamuwa.
Go to Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa to see ancient temples, ruins which are very beautiful.
Go to Nuwara Eliya to see beautiful villages which look like England. There are many tea estates and Hakgala botanical gardens too.
Go to Unawatuna, Galle, Trincomalee (Nilaweli Beach), Pasikuda and north areas to see extremely beautiful beaches.
Go to Mirissa and Kalpitiya and watch whales and dolphins with privately operated boat tours.
Go to Jaffna to see the Portuguese built Fort (1618) it was later expanded by the Dutch (1795), Nallur Temple, Keerimalai natural fresh water pond just 10 feet from the sea and the islands in the Northern Province (Delft, Kayts, Leyden, Middlburg and many more) to see unexplored Sri Lanka.
Go to Yala National Park , Wilpattu , Wasgamuwa for the best wildlife Safari experience. Udawalawe to see elephants and Kumana (Yala East) for birdwatching.
Go to Kithulgala for whitewater rafting in the Keliniya River.
Go to Dehiwala Zoo . Located in the Colombo district. It will take nearly 8 - 10 hours to view all the animals, Aquarium, butterfly park, elephant Show, sea lion show and the snake farm. You have to purchase entrance ticket. Also has to pay for your camera/video.Ticket prices may vary for foreigners and SAARC citizens from the locals. When you get inside the compound follow the guide number posted there, starting 1 and it is nearly 60 routes there. 176 route bus pass this place or on the Galle road, get down at the Dehiwala junction. Agree for LKR100 and Jump in a Trishaw to get in front of the entrance (10 Km from Colombo Fort). It is strictly prohibited to take polythene bags with you. Sundays are crowded day specially on school holidays there may be around 5,000 visitors in a day.
Go to Galle Face Terrace . It is located next to Colombo center and next to the old parliament complex on the Galle road near to the sea. It is a place for locals to gather to spend their evening. At the end of the terrace is 150 years old Galle face hotel. In the morning it is a place for walking and jogging. (0.18Km). In the evening it is a place for to see the fantastic sun setting with different colors. Street vendors sale local food, Coca Cola, Pepsi and mineral water. During season you can view different kinds of kites being flown over there. Also you can purchase one of them and can fly it. There is a viewing stage built in to the ocean you can walk up to the guard railing at the end. Also there is a flag post and in the sun rising and setting time you can watch colorful flag ceremony by the armed force. t is a nice place to capture different kinds of images.
Go to Independence square arcade , Colombo. Fine dining, entertainment and shopping for International brands.
Go to Floating market at the Bastian Mawatha (Close to Fort Railway Station), for local products shopping and dining on a floating restaurant.
Surfing from November to April you can surf in the western and southern coast. Best place for the beginners is Weligama and Hikkaduwa on the southern coast. You can rent a board for LKR1500 per day or LKR400 per hour. Lessons cost LKR2500 for 1h, but bargain. From April to October the surf shops move to Arugam Bay which then is the best place
Kitesurfing from April to September and from December to March you can kitesurf on the northwestern coast. Best place for the beginners is Kalpitiya (Sethawadi and Kappaladi lagoons), where you can find kite schools.
Diving Scuba Diving can be carried out in Sri Lanka's South coast from Nov - April, and April till October in the East coast.There are many diving stations and schools that offer equipment hire and lessons. Divers can explore many sites with ship wrecks, marine life, coral garden and caves.
Hot air ballooning Hot air ballooning is available in the Dambulla area. It is seasonal, from November to April. Sri-Lankan-certified pilots operates them during the morning time.
Bentota beach is famous for its sea turtles farm and hatchery along with lot of water sports activities.
Elephant Ride Elephant ride is mainly available at Pinnawala close to the elephant orphanage, Sigiriya, Minneriya, and Habarana areas. (riding elephants is more and more becoming controversial)
Elephant sanctuary If you want to see happy elephants who are absolutely not being ridden by tourists you can visit The Sanctuary, home for elephants . They aim to give captured elephants the best life possible.
Elephant transit home By far the most ethical and animal-friendly place for captured/orphaned young elephants. Tourists can watch activities like the 4 x per day bottlefeeding but only from a decent distance, as the young ones once grown up will be released in the wildlife park and should not get used to interaction with humans.
Whale and Dolphin Watching. Sri Lanka has become a major spot for watching Whales and Dolphins.The season starts from December to April along west & south coast of sri lanka and June to September in Trincomalee on the east coast. Sri Lanka is situated within international whaling commission’s protected zone in Indian Ocean. West coast in locations from Alankuda beach in Kalpitiya, Mirissa or Dondra Point of down south, east coast off Trincomalee are the main ports of Whale and Dolphin watching in Sri Lanka.(Not recommended for people with seasickness)Rs 6500 for a morning trip. edit
Sport fishing/ Game fishing
Sport fishing/ Game fishing tours are conducted by many operators along the coast and lagoons in Negombo ,Bentota,Mirissa etc.Season starts from November to mid-April.The common fishes found on the coastal and deep waters of Sri lanka are Grouper, Snapper Emperor, Bonefish,Indian Mackerel, Spanish Mackerel, Seerfish, Kingfish, Barracuda, Baramundi, Jackfish, Trevally, Tuna ,Sailfish, Swordfish, Marlin and Shark.
- Gamefishing Asia (Lake Fishing), 26 Ruskin Island, Diggala Road, Panadura, 10400, Sri Lanka (From Colombo head south on Galle Road / A2, turn left at Keselwatta Junction onto Diggala Road, take the ferry to Ruskin Island. Fishing trips are run from Bayou of Bolgoda which is about 650 meters from the ferry landing point on Ruskin Island), ☎+94772274384, . 08:00 - 16:00. Lake Fishing Trips on Bolgoda Lake. Luring, Float Fishing & Fly Fishing for Barramundi, Mangrove Jack and other lake species. Trips run throughout the year except when the rains are heaviest.USD$250. (6.751078,79.922275) edit
White water rafting White water rafting in scenic flowing waters of Kelani river in Kitulgala rain forests is suitable for adventurous adults and is not recommended for younger kids.
Ayurveda Although neighbouring India is the most well known destination for Ayurveda in the world, Ayurveda is also practiced extensively in Sri Lanka. Offerings range from small clinics to large Ayurveda Resorts catering to an international clientele.
Volunteering Sri Lanka offers many different opportunities for volunteering and giving back, such as community or educational work, and wildlife conservation with the gentle giants that have been harmed due to elephant riding. There are many ways to get in contact with the desired volunteer project, one of which is a comparison platform. On Volunteer World, . for example, you can search and compare all volunteering options in Sri Lanka. edit
The currency is the Sri Lankan rupee.
Although you will locally often see it symbolised as "Rs" (with and without a full stop and placed both before and after the amount) together with "රු" (and sometimes even "SLRs." in tourist oriented areas), partly for consistency and partly to avoid confusion with other rupees, we use the international symbolisation of LKR placed before the amount with no intervening space in our guides.
There are coins for 25 and 50 cents (bronze), 1 rupee (old version is big and silver, new version is small and gold,) 2 rupees (silver,) and 5 rupees (gold,) as well as banknotes ranging from LKR10-5000. Coins that are more than a few years old are typically in quite bad condition.
In January 2017: (source XE currency converter)
- USD1 = LKR150.05
- €1 = LKR158.78
- GBP1 = LKR182.83
- RMB1 = LKR21.67
- KRW1000 = LKR126.86
- AUD1 = LKR111.96
- INR1 = LKR2.4
Credit cards and ATMs, banking services
List of Banks in Sri Lanka
ATMs are located in many places including the Colombo airport arrival lounge (especially at bank branches) in the cities and suburbs, less so in the countryside. You can withdraw from debit cards too (Cirrus, Maestro, Visa Electron etc) where their logos are displayed.
Be careful of using credit cards, as fraud is on the rise in Sri Lanka. Mostly your card will be replaced by your bank once you go back to your country. Not every ATM accepts international cards however Hatton National Bank known as HNB accept most of the international cards including China's Union Pay while other bank are accepting limited Nos of Cards. Hatton National Bank (HNB),Commercial bank (Combank), Sampath bank, Bank of Ceylon, HSBC, Pan Asia Bank, National Savings Bank (NSB) are a few leading banks whose ATMs support foreign cards. The ATMs will charge LKR 100-200 for the service. There are some smaller scale banks despite being international (Public bank, Standard Chartered, ICICI, etc) that have presence in Sri Lanka. Check with your bank because you can may be avoid the ATM fee. These banks are, however, available only in Sri Lanka.
Almost every of these ATMs take the card into the machine (unlike the push and pull type you would see in India for example), and three incorrect PIN attempts will result in the machine keeping your card. You will have to go to the same bank within 3 days with the slip to get it back, and you will need identification for that.
As a precaution always try to cash from the ATM in any of the Bank branches between 9.00 - 15.00 hrs as if any thing goes wrong, you can get the help of that bank staff.
You can't send money by Western Union or Money Gram from Sri Lanka abroad. One can only receive money via international money transfer while in Sri Lanka. On your departure, you can change the remaining Sri Lanka currency to foreign currency at the Colombo airport banks providing your passport and the money change receipt you had made with your foreign currency oat the time of your arrival.
Handicrafts Of Sri Lanka. For reed, cane, cotton, paper, leather, wood, clay, metal, and gemstones have been transformed and re-expressed in a array of batiks, toys, curios and jewellery, all exquisite hand made treasures.
The food is very cheap generally, with a cheap meal costing about a dollar. The most expensive, tourist-orientated places seldom charge more than ten dollars. The staple food of Sri Lankans is rice and curry - a massive mound of rice surrounded by various curries and delicacies. If you want to eat a cheap lunch you can follow the Sri Lankan crowds and duck into any of a million small cafes, confusingly called 'Hotels'. These normally sell a rice and curry packet, as well as 'short eats', a collection of spicy rolls. This is ideal for backpackers and those who want to get past the touristy hotels selling burnt chicken and chips - you're charged by how much you eat, and unless you're absolutely ravenous it probably won't cost over a dollar.
If you are taking road trips outside Colombo, there are endless options for places to stop on the road for lunch. Rest houses and hotels along major roads throughout Sri Lanka have good restaurants, and will offer both Sri Lankan and Western menus. If you are less adventurous, you can easily get good sandwiches and soups at these restaurants. These places have excellent rice and curry plates, and you will be served many different types of curries over an extremely generous portion of rice. These meals are extremely delicious and will leave you full and happy at the end of the meal. Eating will definitely be a memorable experience in Sri Lanka.
Kottu (Kothu) Roti (a medley of chopped roti, vegetables and your choice of meat) is a must-have for anyone - tourist or otherwise - in Sri Lanka. It is uniquely Sri Lankan and tastes best when made fresh by street vendors. However, several kottu roti restaurants have been closed down due to their use of stale and old roti, which made some patrons sick. Use caution, and even better, talk with the locals to figure out where the best kottu roti restaurants are. Use your eyes and ears, public nose picking is common in Sri Lanka and is a good indication of where not to eat.
Sri Lankan food is generally spicy. But you can always ask for less spicy options when you are ordering your food.
Other food that you should try are String Hoppers , Hoppers, Pittu & Kiribath.
Note that Sri Lankans eat with their right hands - this isn't a major problem, because everywhere will be able to provide cutlery if you can't eat otherwise. But try the Sri Lankan way (tips of fingers only!), it's harder than it looks but strangely liberating.
There are many upscale restaurants to choose from in the city of Colombo. There are several fine dining restaurants at the 5 star hotels which offer both Local and International cuisine. These establishments are found largely in western Colombo (along Galle Road), though more are located around Colombo and other major cities.
Fast-food outlets such as KFC, Pizza Hut etc. can be found in major cities.
Most locals drink tap water, but the governments travel website states that it is not safe. Should you choose to drink bottled water (1.5 litre for 60-70 LKR in March 2012) please make sure (essentially) that the Health Ministry registration number which would not have a date of registration more than 3 years or SLS (Sri Lanka Standard Institute) label is present. Some bottles are refiled with tap water and then sold again. Also in some parts of the country you'll find hard water due to the high presence of lime in the soil. Fresh milk, due to the climate, spoils easily, and so is often very expensive. Powdered milk, however, is safe and is often substituted.
Thambili the juice from King Coconut, is very refreshing. It's sold at the side of streets throughout the island, you know it's clean as the coconut is cut open in front of you and it's cheaper than bottled drinks at about LKR30-50 each. You can even eat the contents if you prefer, and nobody will judge you.
Tea Sri Lankans love tea they drink it all the time. Almost every local cafe will serve tea. There are two varieties plain tea(no milk, sugar plus tea and sometimes a bit of ginger) and milk tea(confusingly also called 'tea'). Cost between Rs 20-150 depending on the place you order.
Soft drinks are available almost everywhere, normally in dusty-looking glass bottles. The local producer, Elephant, make a range of interesting drinks - try the ginger beer and cream soda. "Coca Cola" and "Pepsi" also available in large and small sizes (plastic bottles) including several local soft drink brands - all available at rapidly multiplying supermarkets all across the country and grocery shops. Smaller glass bottles go for LKR40-50 for 170ml or 300ml ones. Restaurants will charge as much as LKR100 for the 300ml bottle. Elephant branded drinks are usually cheaper, with 400ml content. You can also sometimes find drink stalls at the side of the road offering lime or lemon drink freshly squeezed while you wait.
The most common local beer is Lion Lager (250 LKR in "wine shops" or 400-500 LKR in restaurants in November 2016). For something a bit different try Lion Stout. It is characterized by it's tar-like oiliness of body and chocolate finish. Other brews include Three Coins, which is brewed by the Mt Lavinia hotel chain, allegedly to a Belgian recipe.
The traditional spirit is Arrack, which costs about 7 USD for a bottle (of 350ml), and is often drunk with club soda. The quality can vary depending on how much you want to pay. However, widely recommended brand would be "Old Reserve" and worth paying 15 USD (750ml) for it.
Generally, alcohol is expensive in Sri Lanka. If you can buy some liquor from the airport duty-free, go for it (you are allowed 1 liter). Whiskeys, Rum, Vodka and such spirits are sold at outrageously expensive prices due to the taxes and profit margins. Further, most of the liquor stores are required to close by 9PM, and on every Poya day on every month. Restaurants, clubs, and even some hotels will have liquor to buy after 9PM. Do not count on buying them at super markets or wine stores after 9PM. Prices go even higher after that time as well. Public drunkenness is highly frowned upon, and try to not get into any arguments with the locals.
Accommodation in Sri Lanka has been transformed in recent years. What would be recognized as the modern tourist industry began in the 1960s with traditional beach hotels built on the west coast which were aimed primarily at the package holiday crowd and traditional travel operators. But the past decade has brought a major change, with the growth of villas, boutique hotels, and small independent and individualistic properties offering a huge array of choice.
With the end of the civil war, tourist arrivals have steadily increased to Sri Lanka. Featured globally as an 'IT' destination, the country has seen an influx of hotel investors and larger Sri Lankan companies diversifying into hospitality.
If you are a backpacker, hostel and dormitory style accommodation can start as low as US$ 5. In Colombo, Fort YMCA is a good place. Many homeowners in tourist-centric destinations have turned their homes to 'guesthouses', looking to capitalize on the tourism trade. Most offer clean, comfortable accommodation options for under US$ 30. The concept of backpacker hostels is still new to most of the cities in Sri Lanka, but private rooms can be cheaper compared to hostels in the western world.
As at 2016, the country has over 2,500 listed hotels and guest-houses (a relatively large number considering its 65,610 km2 size) Sri Lanka Tourist Board Hotel Listings. Global brands such as Hyatt, Shangri-La, Anantara, Avani, Hilton, and Ozo have entered the market. The country also features multiple homegrown brands such as Resplendent Ceylon, Jetwing Hotels (the largest hotel chain in Sri Lanka with over 33 hotels and villas around the country), Serendib Leisure Hotels, Cinnamon Hotels & Resorts and Heritance Hotels that have received recent international fame and are diversifying into neighboring markets such as the Maldives. Cape Weligama, a Resplendent Ceylon property, was featured in the 2015 "Best of the Best" Robb Report and together with sister property Ceylon Tea Trails, are the only two Relais & Châteaux properties in the country. Similarly, many international affiliations with brands such as Small Luxury Hotels of the World, independently verify the quality of hotel accommodation.
This is important as Sri Lanka's Tourist Development Authority star ratings are dependent on facilities such as the no. of rooms at the hotel. As such, many of Sri Lanka's best reviewed / most popular hotels offering luxury accommodation, may not rate as a '5 star' but remain unclassified or categorized as a boutique hotel.
Accommodation pricing can vary from hostel type accommodation from US$ 5 to luxury hotels and resorts that charge US$ 1,000 a night.
- Buddhist Studies and Pali Language. The universities of Peradeniya  and Kelaniya  offer variety of Buddhist studies, and Pali language courses in English.
- Meditation. You may find monasteries and meditation centres that offer meditation courses (generally free of charge) in the Buddhist Publication Society guide Lanka_monasteries_2008_jan.pdf.
- Mahamevnawa Meditation Monastery is a good place to learn true Buddhism.
- Dancing There are many foreign enthusiasts to learn Sri Lankan traditional dance under three categories which are Udarata, Pahatharata and Sabaragamu. And there are distinguished drumming for those categories.
The dangers and annoyances listed in the following are sorted in the order of possible occurrence.
During an emergency: use emergency hot-line numbers 119 or 118
Use your best judgment when breaking ice and be careful when talking about sensitive subjects such as religion,politics etc.
Using Drone to film government buildings and architectural monuments without securing permission.
Homosexuality is illegal in Sri Lanka, penalties may include imprisonment. LGBT should exercise caution when visiting Sri Lanka.
If you are victim of any of the below mentioned scams don't hesitate reporting to the police,It may help prevent another person from getting scammed. Police in Sri lanka are known for their quick response compared to other third world countries.
Con men, touts & pretenders